Little Business Digital Advertising

Integrate an email sign up option onto your site and begin building a database of customer data. Sometimes it’s worth boosting your visibility with advertising, targeting each of your markets specifically. All search engines – Google, Baidu, Yandex, Bing… – put the searcher at the center. Responses to searches are usually ranked based on exactly what the searcher will discover most relevant. Therefore if you are usually prospective client will be in Mexico, Search engines Mexico will prioritize Mexican websites within Mexican Spanish.

Of program, it’s not always the good idea in order to opt for the masses and make decisions dependent on popularity, yet these marketers have experienced experience with e-mail marketing, also it appears like it’s recently been a positive a single. In any event, email marketing and advertising is coming upwards again, and it may be a trend you need behind.

The strategy in addition to techniques useful for on-line marketing include e mail, social media, show advertising, search powerplant optimization, Google AdWords and more. The objective of marketing is to reach potential customers through the channels where they spend their time reading, searching, shopping, and socializing online. From startups to enterprise businesses, a multifaceted digital marketing approach can lead to significant commercial benefits.

Marketing Online

A customer utilization model is a good important tool in order to find out exactly how your clients find plus occurs business. Understand how you may make ppc advertising pay back with regard to your small company. Used properly, Tweets will help you connect along with your customers and make your business. What is email marketing, why should you use it and how do you get it opened? Get answers to those and many other questions in this interview with email marketing expert Gail Goodman. The problem with most e-commerce marketing strategy today is that companies don’t understand how they use things like web analytics.

Often, native advertising can be a bit hard to spot, since it is usually mixed in with non-paid content recommendations…but that’s kind of the point. Most social media platforms like Facebook, Instagram, Twitter, LinkedIn, Pinterest and Snapchat will allow you to run ads on their site. Paid social mediadvertising is ideal for building awareness along with audiences that may not have to get aware that will your business, service or product exists.

Individuals are more prone to sense like they must pay back you when these people accept something with regard to free too. Simply no one likes an individual who comes in because a new visitor to a discussion board and begins sending junk email links.

Ecommerce marketing research reveals some actually surprising trends upon how individuals are heading to shop this particular holiday season. Go through this article in order to learn about recognized value pricing plus strategies on exactly how to charge a lot more for your items. Find out in case the perceived worth is perfect for your business. Phrase of mouth isnt the only approach to get a new great referral. A new referral happens virtually any time one site refers visitors one more, and in this informative article, we’re breaking lower how to get – in addition to use – affiliate traffic. Established ~ The business has recently been in business for many years.


The Developer Advertising Guide

The reach associated with your competitor’s sales group is additionally an important element. Do they gather prospects using inbound tactics or even employ lead generation equipment for cold outreach, or even both? Analysing both the particular geographic location and electronic presence of the sales procedure will be vital in order to understanding how your rivals penetrate the global market place. Lightly skim the best and you won’t have sufficient insightful data to actions anything useful.

Marketing Guide

Create the spreadsheet which will act because a competitor analysis design template. Date it, and recycle the template each period you run this evaluation. This allows to make simple comparisons over time and can show you changes inside your competitor’s approach. Exactly how well may be the value task of your competitor’s items communicated across their stations? Is communication consistent plus persuasive or fragmented plus sales-y?

Similarly, in case you go too deep it is likely you will become overwhelmed with data plus be left unsure associated with what is important in order to your strategy. A comprehensive competitor analysis provide you with a keen understanding of the market place to do business, exactly what it takes to be successful in that marketplace, plus what actions can result in failing. There are plenty associated with reasons to perform the competitor analysis, but quantity 1 is to make sure that your chosen technique is strong enough plus differentiated enough to defeat your competitors. The just way you can become certain of this is in case you know how in order to think like your rivals, how to predict their own next move, and best it in your promotions. Just when you believed you needed enough on your own plate, in walk your own indirect competitors. These are usually companies whose services or products are not really the same as your own, but are targeting the exact same sectors of the population in addition to fulfill the same need since yours. A competitor research is a strategic method regarding determining any current or perhaps future threats posed by simply others to the success of your business.

It also enables you to improved determine your ROI for various aspects of your advertising plan. In 2019, IAB UK reported that invest on digital advertising offers increased, with investing in screen ads up 13% year-on-year. According to the 2020 survey, domestic marketing invest has risen by 13% since 2012 and will be expected to grow simply by 7. 6% within the next 12 months. As marketing has become a lot more and more integral in order to the success of the company, it’s most likely that will we will see a good increase in budgeting. The particular CMO Survey has invested 10 consecutive years gathering data on the advertising spend of top entrepreneurs and how this has been expected to change. While that’s a lot associated with elements to factor inside, they make in the sorts of marketing activities that you should budget for.

This specific analysis considers multiple elements in an attempt to be able to highlight the strongest and weakest points of a new potential competitor and just how these kinds of compare to your very own businesses. Carrying out a new competitor analysis to your enterprise is the equivalent of any football team sizing the other side before a huge match.

You want to be able to figure out just what stunts your competition has upwards their sleeve so of which you’re not blindsided any time you come head-to-head. SWOT analysis offers business ideas that give attention to both interior and external impacting elements. Conducting this type regarding analysis heightens your possibilities of success and minimizes the likelihood of disappointment. If you are not able to carry out this, then it’s very likely that your competitors may be utilising this technological innovation and providing a far better customer experience than an individual are.

As long as this goes together with your own brand values and personality, your brand voice can easily be anything you would like it to become. Whether it is empowering, informative, playful, type, funny, professional, ambitious, nice, or authentic… the choices are endless. Using a creatively appealing brand design provides your company the competing advantage of value, oneness, recognition, differentiation, and satisfaction. This really is your opportunity in order to make a great initial impression, so try in order to avoid the normal branding errors. You won’t get the particular chance to do this particular again, so investing within your brand identity is usually vital for success. Creating your brand involves several different elements, including placement, identity, voice, personality, plus image. A marketing spending budget offers a financial roadmap that will reduces risk and helps in the decision-making procedure.

By cleverly establishing your brand position, identity, voice, personality, and image you can gain a definitive edge over your competitors. Just be sure to follow the 5 key rules of branding and be specific, be authoritative, be consistent, be honest, and be relentless. As a person, Apple would certainly become the ‘cool kid upon the block’ using their innovative, innovative, and stylish characteristics.


The Advertising Planning Guide For Expert Services

This entails whether or not the particular sales you choose are exceeding the particular cost of your advertising strategy. As of Might 2018, all marketing marketing communications need to adhere to GDPR. This means that a person can no more freely gather the information of any kind of Tom-Dick-and-Harry that visits (or doesn’t visit) your site plus contact them with content material that they don’t would like or need. A large concentrate of your retention actions will be creating a good enjoyable experience for your own customer.

Marketing Guide

If you began with an optin, a person got that permission, thus hooray! An exit-intent® pop-up shows up at the particular precise moment the consumer is about to keep your website. This pop-up doesn’t interrupt the reading through experience and only activates when the user will be leaving. This is the particular perfect time for requesting them to subscribe due to the fact likely they’ve read your own content and found your web site helpful. To grow your own email list, you require to attract people with the compelling offer. After all those two steps, it’s simply a matter of improving your lists and your own messaging so you’re achieving your audience and really linking with them. Plus, you will be able to arranged up some automation within your email service which can make things much easier with regard to you.

A few ton associated with email providers out presently there, but we take the particular guesswork out and create it truly easy to select the right one for you personally and your goals. The big later in this particular guide, we’ll list away our favorite ESPs that you could choose from. We enable businesses to create spectacular optin campaigns in the matter of minutes along with zero coding skills needed. How you can automate the procedure of nurturing your prospects and turning prospects in to customers.

However, the entire objective of any great technique is to map away the steps you are get to achieve your desired goals. Put the hard function in and you’ll become well on your way to reaping the particular rewards. As we discussed at the particular beginning, your marketing technique must be repeatable, and international in order to have the best probabilities of success. Having a company-wide strategy in place, everybody remains on the same exact page regarding the steps that will need to be used to reach the pre-defined goals and objectives from the organisation. As an internet marketer, you are able to focus your attempts on methods to improve the particular strategy and make this work, rather than be concerned every month about what the particular strategy will likely be.

Each touchpoint these people have with your company must be easy, from whenever they first browse your own website or store in order to when they make the purchase, then during onboarding and beyond. Loyal clients are more likely in order to respond well to upselling and cross-selling. The greatest mistake that you could make because a marketer is thinking that the point associated with sale is the finish of the relationship with the customer.

It can furthermore greatly increase ROI, brand name awareness, and peoples’ appreciation towards a brand. To be able to successfully market using TV SET and radio, brands usually collect and analyse group data and corresponding looking at data from their followers. Just like any kind regarding market segmentation research, typically the data is collected by way of focus groups, surveys, interview, etc. Mass production will be the type of print mass media we’re familiar with. Typically the same technique utilized to be able to create one of typically the most ancient epic reports known to literature, Typically the Epic of Gilgamesh. It may be one of the original forms of traditional marketing and advertising, dating back to typically the 15th century. In 1440, Johannes Gutenberg invented typically the printing press, and together with that, the availability and supply of news pages en-masse became possible.

In fact , the purchase is just the beginning… Play your cards right and you can nurture one sale in to a life-long, loyal, plus profitable, brand-customer relationship. Integrating marketing automation into the advertising strategy can bring a lot more leads, conversions, and product sales, all with less function. Based on Marketo, 76% associated with companies that implement advertising automation generate a come back on their investment inside the first year. Not just that, but 44% of all of them view a return within simply six months. 70% associated with marketers said they have got utilized or plan to make use of consumers to disseminate product-related content. Nevertheless, with precise segmentation and targeting, normal mail can be highly customised, and tailored, and consequently be very valuable, in order to consumers which, in change, is beneficial to the particular brand.


Exactly Why Customer Reviews Are Typically The Frontier Of Inbound Marketing And Advertising

the return ensures that any product returned, in addition to resold, will be marketed at a loss. Generally, by setting the club unreasonably high with say great things reviews, customers finished up undersatisfied by even a flawlessly good product.

And that’s recently been keeping us very, some what busy over the past couple of months. We have done content marketing for awhile, complete with creative blog page posts, e-mail marketing, and a new so-so effort with public media. I think right now there are a handful of reasons is actually so efficient at connecting myself to my website. Very first, it’s an all-in-one application that has everything of which you should fully integrate oneself along with your inbound marketing. A single issue that I’ve got watching HubSpot’s marketing coming from the outside is they kind of downplay how essential creating content is to be able to the achievements of their system. Birdeye builds you an SEO-optimized business profile that exhibits your entire reviews from 150+ sites and updated enterprise information.

Now, in case you are an overachiever, you’re entirely unimpressed with our consumer reports for these a few months. But before an individual conclude that inbound marketing and advertising doesn’t actually deliver, I must remind you that HubSpot reports customers in typically the month where they very first found your website. That is really good for calculating out which piece supply customers eventually, but genuinely annoying for reporting month-to-month, because the data coming from previous months is constantly shifting. Until recently, I’ve long gone back in and discovered out which customers changed, and tried to demonstrate that with a graph and or chart, but I’ve given upwards this month. I identified out a couple regarding months ago that adaptable credit reporting is available in typically the Enterprise edition, so I will just have to possible until I can afford of which fine package.

Within each category sort, you’ll then identify wherever reviews might give attention to, also if they didn’t appear in the audit. Like consumers, we search regarding opinions and enquire our close friends for recommendations. Through the business’ perspective, a review supervision strategy, or watching these kinds of reviews and knowing just how as a solution to them, is usually an important piece regarding your entire marketing strategy. That they are necessary to maintain a new brand’s image, which immediately affects sales. The entries level Basic plan ($10 each month, billed annually) allows you to connect one social mass media platform, create five public media posts and replies per month, and send out 100 marketing emails each month.

For the next HubSpot review write-up, I’ll be showing typically the entire year in overview, so you can notice what’s happened. Since we certainly have a long-ish sales routine, that means that several of our customers have got been leads for additional than 90 days. A sort of reporting system of which adjusts past data is not really very helpful for calendar month to month reporting. Now i’m hopeful that if I actually gripe about it longer enough, certainly one of HubSpot’s merchandise managers who have some take will give us an approach to report customers both when they became a new lead or when they will became a buyer. In earlier months, I’ve talked concerning the different pieces regarding HubSpot’s software and our waxing/waning love for each and every of them.

Marketing Review

Actually merely the other day, I obtained an email from a new product manager at HubSpot following up with ideas about making one regarding the tools better. It may be obvious that they’re functioning hard to make their particular clients better marketers. Since we sell a high-value service, our sales approach is pretty long. We all take our time functioning with prospects to make certain that wish both a good suit for working together. Regarding March and April, we have been continue steadily in several potential partnerships. Nevertheless, they haven’t become consumers yet, so March in addition to April’s customer charts usually are non-existent. A very important factor that individuals charts can’t show is definitely additional business from present clients.


Asset Management Marketing And Advertising Associate

Through the particular marketing and management applications at Carthage, you may improve your ability to function in the dynamic worldwide conditions from the 21st century. Management plus marketing faculty will furthermore help you put concept into practice with internships and career opportunities focused on your interests. The Sales force at UW-Eau Claire competes nationally and has the record of buying recognitions for their outstanding sales pitches. In addition to studying in the classroom, college students experience what a product sales career is like within the real world. Natasia “Tai” McDougall never believed she’d own a save horse, let alone whilst a student in university at UW-Eau Claire.

The top gift primarily enables Carthage to fortify its graduate student specialization in sports administration, the newest option obtainable to students pursuing the Master of Science level in business. The The. W. Clausen Center with regard to World Business prepares college students for business leadership inside a global economy. You will not find any large spiel halls; Clausen Center classes encourage group discussion. You may develop presentation skills when using the building’s multimedia equipment. The particular centerpiece is the Troha Boardroom, with all the particular accoutrements of corporate professional offices and directors’ rooms. There, you might create a presentation, engage in the debate with fellow college students and professors, or fulfill with visiting business frontrunners. Afterward, continue the discussion over a latte in the Starbucks on the particular first floor.

Management Marketing

It requires resource investing on different activities plus programs made to achieve mutually satisfying exchanges between entrepreneurs and customers. Marketing idea introduced a paradigm change that the whole company has to be observed from your point of the final result, which is, customer’s point of view. The particular marketing concept is place into practice by moving the focus of worth creation process to marketplace or customers. The advertising concept holds customer fulfillment as the key in order to achieving organizational goals.

The particular constraint of repeat company changes the marketing paradigm in favour of the client. It becomes a genuine concern of businesses in order to discover what actually will be critical to get the particular customers to keep returning. As time progressed a number of industries witnessed expansion associated with production capacity. This increased competition and put stress on firms to provide better quality products. Unwillingness was observed for the particular buyer to respond quickly to marketed products plus services. The product idea is based on the particular belief that consumers are usually motivated to buy all those products that provide most high quality.

This proposition changed the particular marketing focus to building better companies improving all of them over time. The interior government of Figure 6 shows the controllable ele­ments, the particular ones about which the particular marketing manager can choose. The ability of marketing management will be the effective adaptation associated with these elements towards the unmanageable in the marketing environ­ment so as to enhance the company’s welfare. This particular optimum welfare can become thought of as the particular maximum area attainable within the inner pentagon inside the constraints of the environment, the outer hexagon. The manager makes choices about things he may control—the controllable. Roughly, this individual decides the kind associated with an item to produce, the particular kind of a distribu­tion system to use, the particular price to charge, marketing messages and media, plus the salesmen’s message in order to customers on whom these people call.

The particular dominant business logic based to marketing concept will be that an organization is determined by customers for its success. Selling orientation is most likely to be ineffective for the organization has to rely upon repeat business.

Yet after joining the grounds Equestrian Club, Tai has been on a mission to consider Major Lee Handsome, the rescue horse at Phoenix arizona Rising Rescue and Rehab in Fall Creek, Wisconsin. And now, after finishing her degree in administration – entrepreneurship, Tai will be on a second objective to open her personal ranch of rescue race horses, using what she discovered at UWEC to make a business plan. The particular road to becoming the marketing manager usually requires years of experience associated with marketing. As long because an employee has confirmed his or her capability to attract and maintain new customers, it is a reason that is powerful plenty of to promote him or even her to this placement.

Beneath are the top 10 property management marketing techniques critical tothe success associated with your business. Carthage’s Speed Consulting was the 1st 100% student-run full-service talking to agency in the nation. Students gain incredible encounter while providing marketing, logos, accounting, finance, and some other support to regional customers. Other schools have given that copied the Velocity design, including Harvard University.


Advertising Concept Flashcards

Performance marketing is practiced to ensure financial accountability in profitability term. Holistic marketing concept makes use of performance marketing to make sure profitability from marketing attempts and activities. The alternative marketing concept is the particular new and emerging idea which emphasizes the expansion, style, and implementation of promoting applications, process and activities.

The candidate works hard at selling him or herself – shaking hands, kissing babies, meeting donors and making speeches. Much money also has to be spent on radio and television advertising, posters and mailings.

Today, however , the world is moving rapidly toward a pattern of economic activity based on long-term relationships and partnerships among economic actors in the loose coalitional frameworks of “network” organizations. The marketing concept has evolved through many different definitions over time. These firms try to achieve a balance between the company’s, their consumer’s and the public interest. As a consequence, the organizations have the opportunity build a positive image by increasing the number of positive associations in the minds of present and potential customers. Socially conscious actions mainly lead to a more positive customer response, or at least avoid negative publicity.

Candidate flaws are often hidden from the public because the aim is to get the sale, not to worry about consumer satisfaction afterwards. These guerrilla marketing tactics are cheap, easy to do, and good at getting new customers. A marketing team will help you determine the best price points for your product by evaluating the current market to determine how much a customer is willing to pay.

For decades, Capitol Marketing has been one of the industry’s largest, most successful incentive marketing company because we customize programs to fit the precise needs of each customer. Programs are designed from the ground up to achieve the exact goals of our partner-client. I guess you can say that warm, welcoming people can also assist with the “interior marketing concept”. I was then graciously given a tour from someone I was working with. These two concepts don’t exactly seem like they would go together, right? Being a digital marketer, I never really thought much about interior design. In the traditional business environment, transactions are conducted in a competitive marketplace between hierarchical, divisionalized, bureaucratic organizations and their customers.

Marketing Concept

They will do marketing research to determine who the target audience is and whether or not there is a demand for the product. They’ll determine the best marketing channels for connecting with the target audience and even provide insights on how to improve the product to better match the needs of the target audience. Nearly 60 years ago, E Jerome McCarthy developed the 4 Ps of marketing as a way to describe the different areas of a business that an effective marketing strategy is involved with. When I first started working in marketing, I thought that I’d be creating catchy slogans and colorful images to lure consumers into what shop I was working with at the time.

This particular concept recognizes that “everything matters” with marketing. Additionally, it recognizes that a large, integrated perspective is required to get success inside marketing.


5 Various Brilliant Ways To Blend Traditional & Digital Marketing And Advertising

The faster your brand is able to respond, typically the better these are seen inside the eyes of shoppers. Firms that have active social media marketing accounts and work together with social media marketing influencers to acquire in front of even more consumers spend less funds, and therefore are often better identified and trusted. In typically the past, traditional business marketing and advertising consisted of marketing professionals examining public perception of these company and finding great influencers to associate together with their brand. Many people young and old say that print is usually a dying medium, in its heyday, newspaper commercials were critical to company success. In some techniques, newspaper can be viewed some regarding the earliest forms regarding traditional marketing. Since typically the first American television ad aired in 1941, right now there has been a ton of ads on every single channel possible. Radio, TV SET, print and film have got all been the best mediums for advertisers to be able to market their products or perhaps services to the public since it all started out almost 75 in years past.

Despite the fact that for much of 2020 these events have recently been canceled or moved on-line, this does not mean traditional marketing and advertising must take a whole hiatus. Below are a few offline marketing and advertising techniques that remain successful. Free over-the-air radio in addition to television are critical marketing and advertising channels for the majority of major brand names.

just about any digital marketers and progress hackers have historically downplayed all kinds of traditional marketing and advertising especially events. The capacity to simply grow by simply finding a “hack” is usually now harder than ever before before due to these kinds of tactics been copied continually. The essential definition is handling your brand’s exposure above a selection of mediums including public media, apps, websites, e mail, advertising and more. Buyers take to Twitter to make contact with brands about issues or perhaps questions.

Digital marketing and advertising continues to introduce fresh and exciting technologies, although traditional methods are slowly and gradually fading in the backdrop. But for some brand names, particularly well-established ones, standard marketing may be very costly to ignore, especially any time they may have established a massive offline audience. Over typically the years, traditional marketing has received a proven high accomplishment rate having its ability to be able to reach out to areas where net connection is scarce. Typically the influence of the published word still lives upwards to expectations. Print is frequently viewed by consumers a lot more trustworthy and credible. Industry events and business conferences experience, until recently, been a chief example of how standard marketing can be really useful and lucrative.

Even as technology has developed over the last twenty-five years, the largest firms in the world even now look to TV in addition to radio as important techniques to distribute their marketing and advertising messages. And now of which live video is quickly accessible through social media marketing, participating broadcasts are seeing a great upsurge of popularity. Shall we have a look at how traditional marketing and advertising perfectly complements your on-line efforts to develop customer recognition, trust, and loyalty.

Marketing Traditional

Thankfully for us, technology provides advanced enough to deliver regarding the dawn of a new new area — electronic digital marketing. Digital marketing provides a lot of charm and benefits, but that could be very pricey. Traditional marketing and advertising, alternatively, have far fewer expensive options. Something since simple as business credit card printing can have a new significant impact on organizations, especially when these are generally given out strategically to folks who may have good networks. Flyers and banners, additionally, seldom cost an arm in addition to a leg to manufacture, and can actually achieve a lot of individuals when passed out at filled areas.


23 Free Small Business Marketing And Advertising Delete Word Business Owners To Be Able To Try

Why not bookmark relevant and useful articles, news stories, and blog posts throughout the week. Chances are you pay attention to what’s going on in your industry or in your community related to your business. These could be questions about your product or service, or they could be questions related to your industry. You may already have a Frequently Asked Questions section on your site, but why not expand it into several blog posts or pages. Jane Friedman has a detailed post on the things you must do if you want to get your book published. What does it take to succeed in your industry or niche?

And parents have the option to purchase an attractive health supplement that their children are excited to take. To grow your organic inbound traffic and increase product awareness, you need to think differently about your product. As you move further through the process of finding your big idea, a memorable and straightforward method is to follow the acronym of B-I-G.

Marketing Idea

Just document your buying trips, conferences, or behind the scenes moments with pics and short videos right on your phone. Make sure you’re starting to build your audience and following on Snapchat ASAP. The amount of engagement brands are getting on the platform is remarkable. Take some time every month or every quarter to summarize what’s going on in your industry and what you think the near future will hold. Take a few minutes on Friday and turn those into a short blog post with the headline, link, and a few sentences hitting the highlights in your own words.

Next, you need to attract your target customer’s interest. One way to do this is to apply the concept of creating unfamiliarity into what they’re already familiar with, or vice versa.

Schedule a call today and book one of our virtual marketing sessions or fill out the contact form below with any questions. Identify your most critical marketing objectives, and how they align with your overall strategy. Holly Johnson is the Executive Director at NIHCA, a non-profit that works with insurance providers that offer a fitness and wellness benefit. Her need was to find an expert marketing speaker for a custom virtual webinar. Consequently, she hired Daveeed Wagner and this is what she had to say about it. Find out how we have helped organizations from higher education to entertainment, non-profit and Fortune 1000 brands. Get your big idea right, and you’re ready to soar.

Rich Dad Poor Dad is an international bestseller, yet 101 Ways to Find the Money to Save and Invest is mostly unknown. As we further explore the concept of the big idea, it will quickly become apparent that Rich Dad Poor Dad has a big idea behind it. This is because a title like Rich Dad Poor Dad stands out from all other books about saving plus investing. The best idea at the rear of this book has very easily cut through the sound and captured any possible readers’ attention. Time monitoring software Record accurate timesheets and attendance to create payroll a breeze. Deputy mobile app Run your own teams remotely without lacking a thing. “Fantastic user-friendly time keeping software which usually works hand in hands with Xero. ”

You’re not selling anything different, but you’ve found a creative way to make your product seem unique. Perhaps as you carry out some research on vitamin D, you discover that astronauts used it during space missions. Suddenly, vitamin D could potentially become the “Astronaut’s Vitamin”. Kids are fascinated by astronauts and intrigued by your product.

If you want a blog post to rank in Google search, there are certainly a list of critical elements that must be there. There is a list of things you Must Do to even have the slightest chance of ranking. Rather than highlight the direct benefits of using your product or service, e. g. your gym, focus on the benefits of healthy living and working out. Turn that into a PowerPoint presentation and post to Slideshare. Use your website’s analytics to find your most popular post. This will probably work best if it’s a list post, but it doesn’t have to be.